Discovering the Yuan Ming Yuan: From Lyrical to Painterly to Virtual Reality


Deborah Howes, United States, Makoto Manabe, Japan, Erica Lee, Taiwan, Sara Bodinson, USA, Fang-yin Lin, Taiwan

Abstract

Wandering through museum galleries, sometimes enhanced by an audio guide or kiosk consultation, provided a suitably rich and frequently memorable experience for the 20th century museum visitor. Today, museum professionals are struggling to achieve the right balance of technology, objects and information that will provide a complete and satisfying experience for artists, scholars, visitors and museum staff alike. At least three dynamic factors are at play: 1. As technology has become increasingly powerful, its physical presence has radically diminished, along with its price, making its incorporation into museum space irresistible. 2.Visitors increasingly rely on personal digital devices to manage their understanding of the everyday world, possibly making museum-provided information devices less appealing. 3. Collection objects and artworks are made from digital materials and require digital behaviors that challenge gallery decorum and visitors expectations. Some believe museums should remain technology-free havens for a digitally-weary public, leaving the technology-rich experiences for dedicated entertainment venues. Others encourage museums to embrace the language and behavior of ubiquitous digital activity. What should museums do to support visitors experience in the 21st century? This panel of curatorial, education and media experts will debate the challenges and opportunities of incorporating digital technology into museum galleries.

Keywords: visitor experience, art museum, interpretive technology, audio guide, kiosk, learning behaviors.

Paper by Fang-Yin Lin, President, Bright Ideas Design Co., Ltd.

I. Preface

Since ancient times, documents and ruins have testified to the fact that emperors over the dynasties in China have built gardens of great renown, including the Afang Palace by the First Emperor of China in the Qin dynasty, the Daming Palace in the Tang dynasty, and the Genyue in the Song dynasty. In the Ming dynasty, in addition to the imperial gardens in the Forbidden City, many gardens were also constructed in the northwest suburbs of Beijing, which would become the site for the Three Hills and Five Gardens later in the Qing dynasty. The “Three Hills and Five Gardens” refer to the imperial Qing gardens in northwest Beijing, including the Jing Yi Yuan at Xiangshan, Jing Ming Yuan at Yuquanshan, Chang Chun Yuan, Qing Yi Yuan at Wanshoushan, and Yuan Ming Yuan. The Three Hills and Five Gardens were a culmination of the various types and aesthetics of traditional Chinese gardens, with the Yuan Ming Yuan being a grand synthesis of them all[1].

Starting from the reign of the Yongzheng Emperor in the early 18th century, the Yuan Ming Yuan (Old Summer Palace) would become the most important political center of China outside the Forbidden City, setting a precedent for “Governing from a Garden” that would last for 135 years in the Qing Empire. This period would see the Qing court rise to the peak of prosperity, yielding to rich and varied pinnacles in architecture, science, art, literature, and music for the country. Unfortunately, this great set of imperial gardens symbolizing the essence of Chinese culture was destroyed by foreign troops in a conflict between East and West that embroiled the late Qing dynasty, leaving behind just the vestiges of Western-style palaces seen today.

“Yuan Ming Yuan: The Qing Emperors’ Splendid Gardens” represents the first part of the “Three Hills and Five Gardens” international traveling exhibition. Combining contemporary applied technology and internationally licensed historical materials, the Yuan Ming Yuan, known as China’s “Garden of Gardens,” is being reconstructed in its many facets for everyone to appreciate once again. This is the first international traveling exhibition to fully represent imperial garden life in the Qing dynasty, so it can be considered an event of milestone significance.

An important feature of this exhibition is its multi-faceted approach. It features many precious objects from overseas in Taiwan collections along with images culled from the 18th and 19th centuries, serving as a period background for the artifacts themselves and their close relationship with life in the imperial family. In addition, cooperation with museums in the US and Europe along with those on both sides of the Taiwan Strait has transformed such artworks with great historical value as the Qianlong Emperor’s southern inspection tour paintings, the Forty Views of the Yuan Ming Yuan, copperplate prints of Western-style palaces at the Yuan Ming Yuan, the Yongzheng Emperor’s album of entertainment paintings, and the heads of animal figurine sculptures at the Hall of Calm Seas into digital displays to experience in person. Among these, the animal head sculptures from the Hall of Calm Seas originally at the Yuan Ming Yuan represents cooperation with a sound artist in Europe for a bold experiment with interpreting the language and viewpoints of Asian art to blaze a new path of interpretation for art.

II. Lyrical and Painterly: Interactive Scroll of the Qianlong Emperor’s Southern Inspection Tour

In the tradition of Chinese art are poetry, calligraphy, and painting, known as the Three Perfections and often combined together. As the Chinese saying goes, in poetry there is painting, and in painting there is poetry. As early as 2003-2004, Bright Ideas Design began experimenting with animation to interpret the lyrical spirit of the Chinese painter-calligrapher. The origins of the animation “Reminiscing on the Red Cliff” lay in a desire to find a connection between past and present in the “song and dance” of the Chinese brush, and to find what the Three Perfections have in common. With Su Shi’s “Ode on the Red Cliff” and Zhao Mengfu’s later “Portrait of Su Shi,” and Wu Yuanzhi’s “Illustration of Ode on the Red Cliff” as a blueprint, we constructed a 3D animated space. In the brief 90-second animation, Su traveling to the Red Cliff is the focus of the “camera” as we enter a world of monochrome ink painting faithful to the brushwork of Wu Yuanzhi’s original. Preserving the “axe-cut” texturing of the cliffs and veins of the mountains, it is an extension of the traditional scholar’s mind, in which landscape painting becomes a place to dwell and roam. The cinematic view of Su Shi crossing the river, however, comes purely from our imagination in the present day. The animation soundtrack features the traditional Chinese instrument known as the pipa to symbolize the lyrical sounds of the river found in the poetry, allowing the emotions of the audience to follow the rise and fall around the mountains. The interpretation of the story is an intersection of reality and imagination, reducing the gap in art and emotions between the viewer and classical poetry and landscape painting.

In 2011, Bright Ideas Design presented “The Garden of Peach Blossoms” digital exhibit at the Taiwan International Cultural and Creative Industry Expo to interpret the ideal of utopia in the minds of traditional Chinese scholars, using the integration of digital technology and performing arts to make literature come alive. And with the show spanning new interactive media and the performing arts, we were able to expand the imagination of viewers in life and nature. On a large projection area at the entrance to the exhibit, we presented the calligraphy and painting of present-day Yu Kuo-ching and Zhang Yongren to serve as a preface, using sensor and projection technology to allow audiences to move in front of the works and express different visual effects. Breaking down the boundaries between classical writing and contemporary viewers, it was as if participants could become the artists themselves and experience the feeling of “being in a peach blossom garden,” taking them from the present into the past with “The Garden of Peach Blossoms.”

Of particular note in “The Garden of Peach Blossoms” was the section on “Like Water.” Citing from “Chapter Eight on the Nature of Change” in Laozi’s Daodejing, “The greatest virtue is like water. Water’s virtue benefits all things and does not compete with them.” It was an exploration of the highest realm of virtue in the minds of Chinese scholars: to have a nature like water, nurturing all things and not competing with them for fame or fortune. With the close interaction between professional dancers at Legend Lin Dance Theatre and a multimedia floor projection of lotus blossoms and carp, the audience was invited to take part and experience a life aesthetics transcending time and space, in the process discovering a utopia of their own.

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Fig. 1. Ink animation of “Reminiscing on the Red Cliff”

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Fig. 2. Interactive installation of “‘A Painterly Realm’ in ‘The Garden of Peach Blossoms, a Utopia of the Chinese Scholar’”

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Fig. 3. Interactive performance of “‘Like Water’ from ‘The Garden of Peach Blossoms, a Utopia of the Chinese Scholar”

For the “Yuan Ming Yuan: The Qing Emperors’ Splendid Gardens” exhibition, we see not only an extension of classical the lyrical interpretation of the East and the power of the imagination in “Reminiscing on the Red Cliff” and “The Garden of Peach Blossoms,” but even more a greater integration of interactive technologies and art. Creating a more diverse and multifaceted approach to history, there are the visual experiences of lyricism, the painterly realm, and virtual reality to place audiences at the crossroads of space and time as well as virtual and real, presenting before their eyes many facets of imperial life in the heyday of the Qing dynasty from different points of view.

With the painting “The Qianlong Emperor’s Southern Inspection Tour” by the court artist Xu Yang as an example, we have used new media to interpret “Qianlong’s Journey of Design.” Discovering the story of art from art historical materials, we see the influence that Jiangnan in China’s south had on court art of the time[2]. For this theme, we have used three interactive installations combined with an atmosphere of actually being there, from departing for the “views of Jiangnan” with clearing the way from the capital to what was seen as the pleasures of Suzhou in the “travels of Jiangnan,” and finally ending with an interactive space for the seasons in the “recollections of Jiangnan.” This trilogy intersects to present the beautiful scenery of the Yuan Ming Yuan in its heyday along with a spiritual portrait of the Qianlong Emperor, leading viewers on an unforgettable journey through history and culture. Multimedia technology not only brings art back into the course of history, it also allows viewers to further interact with it. Unlike traditional exhibitions in the past, we have tried to go one step further and make the audience not just a “viewer” but more importantly an active “participant.” Experiential developments of actually viewing poetic and painterly scenes give viewers a first-person viewpoint to enter the Qianlong Emperor’s painting of his southern inspection tour, creating an intersection of time and place, both real and virtual. In experiencing the emperor’s journey of design from Jiangnan to the Yuan Ming Yuan, audiences can actually feel the influence of Jiangnan garden design and art at the time.

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Fig. 4. Holographic image of a “Lei Type” model from the Yuan Ming Yuan “on fire”

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Fig. 5. “Interactive Hallway of the Seasons” with poetic and painterly imagery from the Yuan Ming Yuan special exhibit

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Fig. 6. Scroll six of the Qianlong Emperor’s southern inspection tour (“Encampment at Suzhou”)
Collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

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Fig. 7. “Large Interactive Scroll of the Qianlong Emperor’s Southern Inspection Tour”

III. Virtual Reality and Digitally Interpreting: Twelve Animal Heads from the Hall of Calm Seas

To prepare such a large exhibition as this one for the Yuan Ming Yuan required not only a clear idea of what to focus on, but more importantly what to choose in order to tell its story. The end of the exhibit features the following conclusion by Victor Hugo: “The slow work of generations had been necessary to create it (the Yuan Ming Yuan). This edifice, as enormous as a city, had been built by the centuries, for whom? For the peoples. For the work of time belongs to man [3].” This comment may look rather prosaic, but it actually has profound meaning. Hugo stated that man created the Yuan Ming Yuan, but it is time that creates history. Facing what appears to be the heaviness of history, we have chosen instead to adopt a more open perspective in laying out the story plot for this exhibit. What Bright Ideas Design wants to bring to audiences is how the emperor lived in these buildings during a great period of clash and confrontation between different cultures, ways of thinking, scientific thought, and art. What was the emperor thinking? What was the relationship between the court and local areas as well as art, commerce, faith, and technology at the time?

With these questions in mind, we have continually attempted to break through the constraints of “viewing” the Yuan Ming Yuan in planning this exhibition. Using the twelve animal heads for fountain sculptures at the Hall of Calm Seas as an example, these pieces have become almost synonymous in the minds of many Chinese today with the humiliation that China suffered in the past at the hands of foreign powers. In the “Versailles of the East” section of the exhibit, we have combined images of the twelve animal heads with the latest “intelligent” transparent panels to reinterpret these sculptures originally from the Yuan Ming Yuan. We have used digital technology not only to bring out the characteristics of Chinese and Western fusion art with these twelve animal heads [4], but also to represent an Oriental view of time symbolized by the Heavenly Stems and Earthly Branches. In addition, we have worked with the Spanish sound artist, Santiago Latorre, and the Ricci Institute for Chinese-Western Cultural History in the US to deduce the “Dodici Sonate a Violino Solo col Basso del Nepridi – Opera Terza.” Composed by the European missionary Teodorico Pedrini for the Kangxi Emperor, this piece represents an attempt to combine interpretive methods of contemporary art and technology. Overcoming the gravity of history, the fusion of Chinese and Western culture in the 18th century is conveyed along with a dialogue between two generations of rulers.

In terms of historical interpretations by the museum world, the twelve animal heads from the Hall of Calm Seas represent a bold and novel approach. Here, we have attempted a framework approach of “recreating” them with digital technology, to which we have added the “vocabulary” of modern art. In preparing music for the exhibit, the sound artist Santiago Latorre worked and collaborated several times with members of the curatorial team, finally deciding on incorporating the sense of technology expressed in the exhibit pieces via the sound of electronic music mixed with such traditional Western instruments as the cello, providing a rich interpretation of the varied Sino-Western exchange and fusion in the 18th century.

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Fig. 8. Reinterpretation of the “Twelve Animal Heads from the Hall of Calm Seas” developed by Bright Ideas Design Co., Ltd. Background music score licensed by the Ricci Institute for Chinese-Western Cultural History in the US

IV. THEATRICAL STORY SPACE

The Yuan Ming Yuan special exhibit is divided into sections like the chapter headings of a novel. All together, there are five sections: “Divisions of Light,” “Garden of Gardens,” “Entering a Model,” “Impressions of Jiangnan,” and “Versailles of the East.” The connection between these sections along with developments in history represents five points of view to approach the subject. And extending from this framework are other individual sub-themes. The integration of more than a hundred artifacts and digital technology provides a connection between the past and future of the Yuan Ming Yuan as it stood in the 18th century, the exchange between China and the West at the time, the relationship between the court and local areas, changes in visual culture, and the mutual influence between Chinese and Western art.

As Orhan Pamuk once wrote, “Real museums are places where Time is transformed into Space.”[5] In other words, historical materials in the form of historical images, textual records, and cultural artifacts are transformed into a place of perception and experience for contemporary viewers. This makes a story of a particular time and place, in this case from more than a century ago, form a new connection of importance for viewers here and now.

With this concept in mind, the exhibition starts with the conflict between the worlds of East and West in the 18th century and uses flashbacks in the form of chapter headings, gradually laying out the multiple aspects of imperial life in the Qing dynasty during its heyday, including literature, crafts, music, performing arts, and architecture. Exploring the taste in Qing imperial life also provides an outline of this era. The entrance to the exhibit features a documentary installation along with a history pictorial on the invasion of Beijing by foreign allied troops. Visitors, taken through time and space, are transported back to 18 October 1860, the day when the Yuan Ming Yuan was set on fire. With the twelve photographs of the Yuan Ming Yuan taken in 1873 by the German photographer Ernst Ohlmer as an introduction to this complex period[6], another wall in the display area features an exhibit of fragmentary objects from the invasion of Anglo-French allied forces along with medals of honor presented to foreign troops for their participation in the First Opium War, the Anglo-French allied invasion, and the Eight-Power allied invasion. One wall with old photographs of China in defeat, with the Yuan Ming Yuan in ruins and the other with medals glorifying the victory of foreign powers, form a dramatic contrast of the conflicts that engulfed China at the time. This divergent two-fold historical view of events serves as a metaphor for the first exchange and conflict that occurred between East and West during the 19th century.

In the second part of the exhibition, “Garden of Gardens,” is the “Animation Theater of Yongzheng and the Yuan Ming Yuan.” Integrating stage lighting and three-channel surround projection, the contents open with the famous meeting at the Peony Terrace by the Kangxi, Yongzheng, and Qianlong Emperors, during whose reign China in the Qing dynasty reached a peak. Here we see the Yongzheng Emperor taking a break from government matters and playing the role of a traditional Chinese scholar, a country rustic, and even wearing the clothes of a Western elite. This kind of “costume play” for the emperor’s entertainment also shows the humor and yearnings of a ruler that most people never witnessed. With the Yongzheng Emperor and the Yuan Ming Yuan, we begin a journey exploring the multifaceted nature of art and culture in the Qing dynasty. The third section, “Entering the Model,” leads visitors in understanding the Yuan Ming Yuan from the perspective of architectural methods. This part of the exhibit includes diagrams, models, and construction methods as well as an ancestor portrait from the Lei family authorized by the Capital Museum in Beijing as well as precious sandalwood furniture of the Qing court. These rare traces of cultural heritage offer a glimpse at the scientific foundations of the construction at the Yuan Ming Yuan [7].

One of the bright spots of this special exhibition is in the fourth section, “Impressions of Jiangnan,” featuring a large interactive scroll measuring 1.5 meters tall and 8 meters long based on scroll six of the Qianlong Emperor’s southern inspection tour (“Encampment at Suzhou”) in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Divided into four large scenes, it deals with the Grand Canal between the capital and Hangzhou, Tiger Hill, Bridge of Ten Thousand Years, and the Suzhou Imperial Silk Factory. The depiction of the Qianlong Emperor’s southern inspection tour condenses several days of travel along his route and recombines them. In this interactive piece, we worked with research material of Associate Professor Ma Ya-Chen of the Institute of History at Tsing Hua University [8], presenting scenes of prosperity in Jiangnan at the time with a grand view of common folk paying their respects to the emperor. This installation is also an attempt to express the multiple political viewpoints that the Qianlong Emperor wanted to convey through painting as well as power relations between the court and local areas.

In the last section of the exhibit, “Versailles of the East,” we have used reconstructions of Western-style palaces, Western copperplate prints, Western timepieces, as well as objects of the scholar’s studio and jades fusing elements of Western and Chinese art to demonstrate the Qianlong Emperor’s taste for Western art as well as changes that took place in imperial style during the 18th century. In putting together this exhibit, we have also developed by extension here a very interesting subject: “The Qianlong Emperor and King George III.” Many people may already be familiar with Sino-Franco cultural exchange through a recent exhibit on the Kangxi Emperor and King Louis XIV, featuring numerous objects displaying the interaction between these two regimes focusing on the Forbidden City and Versailles during the 17th century. However, there has been no thematic exhibit so far to explore Sino-British cultural exchange during the 18th century. From the list of presents given by King George III to the Qianlong Emperor along with the enamelware [9], Western timepieces, and snuff boxes presented to Qianlong by the British embassy to China at the time, a picture of cultural exchange emerges in the 18th century between Buckingham Palace and the Yuan Ming Yuan, offering a comparison between Chinoiserie popular in Europe at the time and Western trends that entered China. The trade, cultural taste, and mutual influence between these two worlds laid a foundation for the historical process, from mutual learning to conflict, between cultures of the East and West.

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Fig. 9. 1873 photograph by Ernst Ohlmer of the remains of Western-style architecture at the Yuan Ming Yuan, Collection of the Qinfeng Old Photo Gallery

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Fig. 10. Medal awarded to a member of the Anglo-French allied forces, Private collection

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Fig. 11. Model of the Hall of Universal Peace (reproduction) Tongzhi reign (1861-1875), Qing dynasty, Private collection

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Fig. 12. Interactive installation for the copperplate prints of Western-style architecture at the Yuan Ming Yuan

V. CONCLUSION: A TAIWAN SHOWCASE CONTRIBUTING TO THE WORLD CULTURE HERITAGE

The Yuan Ming Yuan exhibition applies creativity from Taiwan and subject matter from China to create a world tour[10]. The idea for this exhibition had actually been in my mind for years, but unfortunately the museum field in Taiwan had yet to keep pace with changes in legal matters involving digital licensing. Creating a cultural bridge between both sides of the Taiwan Strait, we have attempted to create a mobile platform of creativity, establishing possibilities for innovative interactions between both sides of the Taiwan Strait.

The creative shop as an extension of the exhibition is also an extension of the story of the Yuan Ming Yuan exhibition. Based on a historical site in an illustration of “Sitting Rocks and Winding Stream,” one of the Forty Views at the Yuan Ming Yuan, is a commercial street. Here, the Qianlong Emperor played the role of a commoner with eunuchs and palace ladies serving as shopkeepers, offering him a chance to experience life in the city outside. The portrayal of shops and street scenes in Qing dynasty paintings not only allowed the emperor to experience the life and entertainments of common folk, it also reflected his own aesthetic in life.

Taiwan is an island of technology, having a competitive edge when it comes to the global digital industry and technology. It also has a deep and vast Chinese culture at its disposal along with abundant cultural resources. How to effectively and efficiently integrate and apply them is an issue for traditional Asian art in how to overcome its difficulties in presentation to the general public. Forces popular in society propel this international exhibit and related activities, representing an opportunity to change the way museums operate in Taiwan. With this as a model, we hope to not only stimulate the cultural and artistic fields on both sides of the Taiwan Strait but also emphasize the importance of research and development as well as the necessity of cultural export. During the exhibition, an international forum on digital interpretation in the museum field and life aesthetics at the Yuan Ming Yuan will also be held. Renowned scholars from both sides of the Taiwan Strait as well as Europe and North America are being invited to gather for discussions on various issues and to explore various different possibilities. Together, they testify to the importance of this moment in culture, opening up the international visibility for the first part of the “Three Hills and Five Gardens” international traveling exhibit.

A historically themed exhibit with an innovative concept, however, is still different from a work of art. The application of digital technology merely assists in the effort of interpretation. The contents of history still must rest on a solid foundation of research and culture. As a result, whether it be the contents of the artworks themselves or the display of interactive technology, we have consistently relied on an academic team composed of domestic and international experts. They include scholars recognized in the field of modern history, with A Paradise Lost: the Imperial Garden Yuanming Yuan written by Professor Wong Young-tsu of Academia Sinica providing us with a macroscopic view of historiography. Standing on the heights of history and culture has offered us a comprehensive survey of the meeting between two worlds. Professor He Yu at the People’s University of China has worked for years in compiling a chronological study of the imperial gardens in the Qing dynasty, providing precious digital material on the history of architecture and making the exhibit even richer and more diverse. Zhang Fengwu and He Beijie along with Professor Wang Qiheng of the School of Architecture at Tianjin University have conducted studies on the “Lei Type Models,” part of the memory of world heritage, demonstrating the scientific accomplishments of Chinese architecture. Hsu Chung-Mao of the Qifeng Old Photo Gallery has delved into the historical connections of imagery from the perspective of Chinese pictorial history and changes in visual culture over time. We have also benefited much from Professors Chen Pao-chen and Hsieh Ming-liang at my alma mater, National Taiwan University; Professor Ma Ya-Chen at National Tsing Hua University; and Professor Hou Hau-Chih of Chinese Culture University have supported our foundation in the contemporary technological interpretation of the exhibit contents based on their viewpoints in art historical research on the Qianlong Emperor’s grand birthday celebrations, his southern inspection tours, and Western copperplate prints produced under his rule. Associate Professor Herminia Din of the University of Alaska at Anchorage has also given us many valuable suggestions from the viewpoint of museology. In addition, our perspectives of Western studies and collecting have greatly benefited from the Sino-Western cultural exchange in the 18th century found in works at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. Dr. Peng Ying-Chen at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles along with curators Yu Pei-chin, Lin Chun-yi, and Cheng Wing-cheong of the National Palace Museum in Taipei and the researcher Guo Fuxiang at the Palace Museum in Beijing have assisted us in creating in-depth historical interpretations of the display and studies of objects in overseas collections. With so many individuals and institutions sparing nothing to support this project, we have been able to ensure the scholarship and richness of the exhibit contents. With sources of historical documents transformed into vivid images, we have recreated the mental state of emperors and life in the imperial gardens, creating an innovative facet to the exhibit.

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Fig. 13. “Sitting Rocks and Winding Stream,” Illustrated Poems on Forty Views at the Yuan Ming Yuan, Collection of La Bibliothèque nationale de France

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Fig. 14. Cosplay figurines designed by the team at Bright Ideas Design Co., Ltd.

[1] Wong Young-tsu, A Paradise Lost: the Imperial Garden Yuanming Yuan, Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2001.
[2] National Museum of China , Emperor Qianlong’s Inspection Tour in the South : A Study, Wenwu Press, Beijing, 2010.
[3] Cheng, Zenghou, Victor Hugo and Yuan Ming Yuan, Chung Hwa Book Company, Beijing, 2010.
[4] Wong Young-tsu, “European Buildings with Chinese Characteristics”, Ex/Change, no. 10, City University of Hong Kong, 2004.
[5] Orhan Pamuk, The Museum of Innocence, Rye Field Publishing Co., Taipei, 2012
[6] Qin Feng Studio, Disturbed Dreams in the Ruins of the Garden, Guangxi Normal University Press, Guilin, 2010.
[7] Hu Jie, Syun Siao-Siang, Analysis of Imperial Gardens in the Qing Dynasty, China-Building Press, Beijing, 2011.
[8] Ma, Ya-chen. “Picturing Suzhou: Visual Politics in the Making of Cityscapes in Eighteenth-Century China.” Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, 2007.
[9] George Leonard Staunton, “An Authentic Account of an Embassy from King of Great Britain to the Emperor of China”, London: G. Nicol, 1797.
[10] Lin Fang-yin, “Yuan Ming Yuan: The Qing Emperors’ Splendid Gardens” exhibit official website: http://www.ymyexpo.com.tw/en/info.html, 2013.


Cite as:
D. Howes, M. Manabe, E. Lee, S. Bodinson and F. Lin, Discovering the Yuan Ming Yuan: From Lyrical to Painterly to Virtual Reality. In , N. Proctor & R. Cherry (eds). Silver Spring, MD: Museums and the Web. Published October 8, 2013. Consulted .
https://mwa2013.museumsandtheweb.com/paper/discovering-the-yuan-ming-yuan-from-lyrical-to-painterly-to-virtual-reality/